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means a foreign substance that leads to allergies by prompting an immune response.
means a state of abnormal and individual hypersensitivity acquired through exposure to a particular allergen.
means, in reference to drugs, a compound that has an altered molecular structure from that of its parent compound. Useful analogues of existing drugs may be more potent and/or have fewer side-effects.
means any of various compounds that counteract histamine in the body and that are used for treating allergic reactions (as hay fever) and cold symptoms.
means a condition marked by recurrent attacks of breathlessness, with wheezing due to spasmodic constriction of the bronchi.
"auto-immune diseases"
are diseases in which an individual's immune system develops inappropriate responses to their own cells or tissues.
means the major air passages of the lungs.
means causing constriction of the bronchi.
means Adenosine 3':5' - cyclic monophosphate - a second messenger in certain cell signalling pathways.
means a family of chemicals that attract cells to the site of inflammation.
"clinical trials"
means organized studies with human participants designed to provide statistically relevant clinical data for determining the efficacy and safety of new therapeutic agents, diagnostics and medical devices.
means a chemical molecule intended to be used as a therapeutic agent.
means a natural compound isolated from the marine sponge Petrosia contignata.
means any of the hormones produced by the adrenal cortex and their synthetic equivalents.
means a diverse group of biologically active protein molecules released by cells in response to activation or injury that participate in the immune and/or inflammatory response.
means disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs.
is a double strand of deoxyribonucleic acid - the molecule that is the carrier of the genetic codes and the constituent of chromosomes found in all cells of the body.
means the accumulation of excess fluid in a fluid compartment. This accumulation can occur in the cells or in the intercellular spaces within tissues.
means the ability of a drug to achieve the desired effects.
means a type of white blood cell involved in inflammatory responses. High levels of these cells accumulate in the lungs during asthma or an ongoing allergic reaction.
means the science of the causes of disease.
means the United States Food and Drug Administration, the government agency which regulates the development, manufacture, use and sale of pharmaceutical drugs in the U.S.

means Good Manufacturing Practices - a code of manufacturing practices followed by the pharmaceutical industry that provides a high level of certainty and assurance in a production and quality control operation.
means current Good Manufacturing Practices.
means a form of corticosteroid commonly used as a therapeutic for anti-inflammatory diseases and as an immunosupressant.
means a specific chemical that stimulates the constriction of smooth mucscle in the bronchioles by binding to the H1 receptor.
means examination of changes of the structure and composition as a result of disease or damage.
means increased magnitude of effect to a fixed stimulus.
means a selective suppression of specific immune responses.
means completely suppressing the immune response.
means Investigational New Drug application; a required regulatory filing made to the FDA or TPP prior to entering human clinical trials in their respective jurisdictions.
means having the effect of preventing or prohibiting a specific reaction.
"in vitro"
is used to describe a biological process taking place outside a living organism, such as in a test-tube or other artificial environment.
"in vivo"
is used to describe a biological reaction or process that occurs within a living body.
means a white cell whose chief function is to fight infection and repair injured tissues. Leukocytes leave the blood at the site of injury or inflammation.

means any of a group of compounds derived via lipoxygenase enzymes from arachidonic acid that are potent mediators of inflammation.
means Leukocyte Selective Anti-inflammatory Drugs.
means mononuclear leukocytes that occur in tissues such as blood vessels, bronchi, etc., during chronic diseases.
means a group of atoms bonded together to form a stable composition of matter.
"multiple sclerosis"
means a demyelinating disease marked by patches of hardened tissue in the brain or the spinal cord and associated especially with partial or complete paralysis and jerking muscle tremor.
means a new drug application filed with the FDA.

means phosphodiesterase, an intracellular enzyme that regulates the levels of cyclic AMP, an important second messenger that regulates cellular function.
means phosphodiesterase 4, a key form of phosphodiesterase found in many inflammatory cells (i.e. neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes).
means the Patent Co-operation Treaty, a single international application that specifies those jurisdictions that are party to the PCT in which patent protection is ultimately to be sought. The PCT application effectively creates a bundle of separate territorial applications but no patent can be granted directly from the PCT application.
means the study of the mechanism of action of drugs and the biochemical and physiological effects.

means the study of the movement of drugs in the body including processes of absorption, distribution, localization in tissues, biotransformation and excretion.
means the science that deals with the origin, nature, chemistry, effects and uses of drugs.
means a molecular scaffold or structure used as the basis for drug development.
"Phase I trials"
means initial clinical studies in humans, using small doses and a limited number of volunteer participants to assess safety, metabolism and excretion of a drug or drug combination.
"Phase IIa trials"
means clinical studies in patients to further assess the safety and efficacy of a drug or drug combination in a non-comparative manner.
"Phase IIb trials"
means extended clinical studies in patients beyond Phase IIa trials to further assess the safety and efficacy of a drug or drug combination in a non-comparative manner.
"Phase III trials"

means randomized and controlled clinical studies in patients designed to evaluate the comparative safety and efficacy of a drug or drug combination. Also, the principal data used by regulatory agencies to approve or reject a product licensing application.
means an inert substance causing no effect used as a comparator in a pre-clinical study and clinical trial.
"pre-clinical studies"
means studies that evaluate compounds in disease models that mimic the human disease condition.
means any of a group of naturally occurring, chemically related, long-chain unsaturated hydroxy fatty acids that, among other biological effects, control inflammation.
Prescribed medication to treat sleep apnea.
means a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by circumscribed red patches covered with white scales.
means a binding site located on the membrane of a cell or within a cell that responds to a specific molecule or substance, producing some effect within the cell.
"receptor antagonist"
means a molecule that binds to a cellular receptor for a substance blocking the action of that substance without producing any physiological effect itself.
means the study of breathing on the body.
"rheumatoid arthritis"
means a usually chronic disease of unknown cause that is characterized especially by pain, stiffness, inflammation, swelling, and sometimes destruction of joints.
is a single strand of ribonucleic acid normally made by transcription from a DNA molecule and is primarily associated with the synthesis of proteins.
means a complex molecule containing a specific arrangement of carbon atoms in four interlocking rings (three rings contain six carbon atoms each, the fourth contains five). Steroids are important in body chemistry. Among them are the male and female sex hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen, and the hormones of the adrenal glands, including glucocorticoids which are involved in regulation of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids.
means one of several mediators of inflammation.
are white blood cells that originate in the thymus gland. T-cells play a pivotal role in both humoral and cellular immunity. They are key components of the acquired immune system.
means the Therapeutics Products Program Health Canada - the government agency that regulates the development, production, quality, safety and efficacy of biological and pharmaceutical products in Canada.
means the science or study of poisons.
means the process by which information contained within the DNA is transferred to a newly synthesized RNA molecule.
A commonly used pain relief medication, fairly safe with limited side effects.More here


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